Energy-efficient Feedback Tracking on Embedded Smart Cameras by Hardware-level Optimization
Abstract: Embedded systems have limited processing power, memory and energy. When camera sensors are added to an embedded system, the problem of limited resources becomes even more pronounced. In this paper, we introduce two methodologies to increase the energy-efficiency and battery-life of an embeddedsmart camera by hardware-level operations when performingobject detection and tracking. The CITRIC platform is employedas our embedded smart camera. First, down-sampling is performed at hardware level on the micro-controller of the imagesensor rather than performing software-level down-sampling atthe main microprocessor of the camera board. In addition, instead of performing object detection and tracking on wholeimage, we first estimate the location of the target in the nextframe, form a search region around it, then crop the next frameby using the HREF and VSYNC signals at the micro-controllerof the image sensor, and perform detection and tracking onlyin the cropped search region. Thus, the amount of data thatis moved from the image sensor to the main memory at eachframe is optimized. Also, we can adaptively change the size ofthe cropped window during tracking depending on the objectsize. Reducing the amount of transferred data, better use ofthe memory resources, and delegating image down-samplingand cropping tasks to the micro-controller on the image sensor,result in significant decrease in energy consumption and increasein battery-life. Experimental results show that hardware-leveldown-sampling and cropping, and performing detection andtracking in cropped regions provide 41.24% decrease in energyconsumption, and 107.2% increase in battery-life. Compared toperforming software-level down-sampling and processing wholeframes, proposed methodology provides an additional 8 hours ofcontinuous processing on 4 AA batteries, increasing the lifetimeof the camera to 15.5 hours.
Citation:M., Casares; Santinelli, Paolo; S., Velipasalar; Prati, Andrea; Cucchiara, Rita "Energy-efficient Feedback Tracking on Embedded Smart Cameras by Hardware-level Optimization" Proceedings of ICDSC 2011, Ghent, Belgium, pp. 1 -6 , 22-25 August 2011, 2011 DOI: 10.1109/ICDSC.2011.6042915
- Author version:
- DOI: 10.1109/ICDSC.2011.6042915